What are the four types of equality?

What are the four types of equality?

Ontological, Opportunity, Condition, & Outcome

Ontological equality is the idea that all people are created equal in the eyes of God. This concept is best seen in the Pledge of Allegiance of the United States which states that “one nation under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all.” The pledge is referring to ontological equality because it states that the nation is under God’s realm.

Equality of opportunity is the concept that as long as all people are given the same opportunities for advancement, that inequality of conditions are acceptable. This was an argument which supported concepts such as segregation and the doctrine of “separate but equal”.

Equality of condition is the concept that all people should have an equal starting point from which they begin their pursuit of goals in life. This belief can be seen in the idea that many groups begin at a disadvantage such as poor people and subordinate groups. As a result, policies such as affirmative action are implemented to level the playing field for these groups.

Equality of outcome is the notion that all people in society should have the same benefits as everyone else. This concept is difficult to define in American society due to its capitalist nature. However, a concept such as health care reform which attempts to create the same access and benefit for all Americans is an example of the equality of outcome.


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Triola Vincent. Fri, Feb 05, 2021. What are the four types of equality? Retrieved from

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