Cross-Cultural Psychology

Cross-Cultural Psychology

Tuesday, February 09, 2021

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Case Study Analysis

In a case study of stereotype change in groups, increased intergroup contact was used to measure changes in immigrant populations. Specifically, “one pre- and two post migration measurement points” to analyze interaction between “200 Ingrian Finns and their families migrating from Russia to Finland” (Lönnqvist, Jasinskaja-Lahti, & Verkasalo1, 2012). The results of this study reflected that there stereotypes in immigrant groups remained consistent over time and there was little change in the accuracy, meaning that these stereotypes did not become more accurate over the course of the study. As well, the results of this research showed that there was little means of predicting stereotype change at the individual or group level. This case study provides a strong example of how cultural and cross-cultural psychology are differentiated and related to one another.

This case study is an example of cross cultural psychology due to the fact that it examines static aspects of culture, (stereotypes), by comparing this subject using two cultures, (Russian immigrants entering Finland) In a cultural psychological approach the study would have examined one culture and the dynamics of stereotypes within that culture. Similarly, both forms of psychology study psychological functioning within the cultural context (Matsumoto & Juang, 2013).

The relationship between cultural and cross-cultural psychology can be seen in this case study as the concept of stereotypes are studied. The case focuses on changes in stereotypes with accuracy or similarity with the immigrant Russian population in to Finland. Two aspects of the study are studied from the cross cultural perspective and these include the stereotype perceptions of Finns towards Russians at the individual and group level. These perceptions are important to a cross cultural psychological view because they may reflect how immigrant populations are impacted by stereotypes across time. The results of this case study showed that there was no significant change in stereotype perceptions. From the cross cultural psychological perspective this data could be used in different ways to show how stereotypes can be extremely detrimental to immigrant populations. An example of this can be seen in another study of immigrants it was determined that immigrant children typically rely on group and peer perceptions when determining behavior (Verkuyten, Thijs, & Sierksma, 2013). The immigrant children who had the best success in school and socialization were those who experienced the least negative peer pressure (Verkuyten, Thijs, & Sierksma, 2013). From this data, one can correlate the case of stereotypes remaining unchanged with the idea that stereotypes can be damaging to immigrant children. This would mean that immigrants who are subject to negative stereotypes may face negative outcomes when exposed over the long term. This methodology of comparison provides cross cultural psychologists with the ability to isolate specific cultural factors and how they impact psychology such as behavior, cognition, and other factors.

Other factors can be derived from case studies such as this, including a greater understanding of how ethnicity, race, and worldviews are separate yet related concepts. This understanding is founded in the idea that racial and ethnic identities are significant in the formation of individual and group identities. These identities are important because they impact the manner in which people perceive themselves and others. This defines one’s worldview. The concept of ethnicity and race form these identities by virtue of the way that they are perceived in society. In the US, for example, racial and ethnic differences are pronounced in a variety of was. For example, these concepts are used in overt ways such as being use to define groups in legal ways such as with minorities. These ideas manifest themselves in cultural identification can instill negative and positive beliefs. For example, the constant exposure to negative stereotypes by minority members can create negative cultural practices and other issues.

The concept of ethnicity and race form these identities by virtue of the way that they are perceived in society. In the US, for example, racial and ethnic differences are pronounced in a variety of ways. For example, these concepts are used in overt ways such as being use to define groups in legal ways such as with minorities (Chávez & Guido-DiBrito, 1999). These ideas manifest themselves in cultural identification can instill negative and positive beliefs. For example, the constant exposure to negative stereotypes by minority members can create negative cultural practices and other issues (Chávez & Guido-DiBrito, 1999).

The impact of culture via ethnic and racial factors can readily be seen through the lens of enculturation. For instance, individuals who become enculturated quickly in new societies endure less stereotyping. This is also trued of groups that share similar cultural traits such as language, religion, race, and other elements (Verkuyten, Thijs, & Sierksma, 2013). Thus, a person from England would immigrating to the US would assimilate and endure less stereotyping than someone from Russia due to sharing of language.

The impact of culture via ethnic and racial factors can readily be seen through the lens of enculturation. For instance, individuals who become enculturated quickly in new societies endure less stereotyping. This is also trued of groups that share similar cultural traits such as language, religion, race, and other elements (Verkuyten, Thijs, & Sierksma, 2013). Thus, a person from England would immigrating to the US would assimilate and endure less stereotyping than someone from Russia due to sharing of language.

From a cultural psychological perspective, these factors explain why some groups have taken a tremendously long time to assimilate into the US mainstream culture such as African Americans. Being black may have the negative impact of differentiating this group and causing them to be resisted longer than other groups such as Irish or Italian immigrants. Cultural psychology explains many factors through comparisons of cultures and how they are impacted by race and ethnicity in this way.

References

Chávez, A. F., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (1999). Racial and Ethnic Identity and Development. Retrieved from Harvard: http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic551690.files/Chavez%20and%20Guido%20Debrito.pdf

Lönnqvist, J.-E., Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., & Verkasalo1, M. (2012). Group-Level and Intraindividual Stability of National Stereotypes: A four year longitudinal study on Ingraian Finn immigrants pre-and postmigration stereotypes of a typical Finn. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44(5), 765–785.

Matsumoto, D., & Juang, L. (2013). Culture and Psychology, Fifth Edition. New Jersey: Cengage Learning.

Verkuyten, M., Thijs, J., & Sierksma, J. (2013). Majority children’s evaluation of acculturation preferences of immigrant and emigrant peers. Child Development, 10, 1111.

Photo by Vitaliy Lyubezhanin on Unsplash

~Citation~

Vincent Triola. Tue, Feb 09, 2021. Cross-Cultural Psychology Retrieved from https://vincenttriola.com/blogs/ten-years-of-academic-writing/cross-cultural-psychology

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